Cortona that Virgil said was founded by the legendary Corito, was probably an Umbrian fortress, passed to the Etruscans between the 8th and 7th century BC, and then became an important lucumonia. At the end of the 4th century. B.C. it entered the Roman alliance, but no one knows when it was actually occupied; it acquired the Roman citizenship during the social war and received a colony from Silla. After that there are no more certain news: perhaps it was taken by the Goths in 450. It reappears in the 11th century, struggling with Perugia and with the bishops of Arezzo, governed by democratic institutions that guaranteed the city a quiet internal life. In 1258, the free municipality of Cortona was sacked by Arezzo and only three years later with the help of Siena regained their independence, rising rapidly; in 1325 it became a Bishops seat, while the city pierced to Signoria under Ranieri Casali, whose descendants held Cortona until 1409, when Ladislaus, King of Naples, seized it, in order to sell it to the Florentines in 1411 and since then followed the fate of Florence. Between the 14th and 17th century, Cortona was one of the main cultural and artistic centers of Tuscany.